Sunshine is delicious, rain is refreshing, wind braces us up, snow is exhilarating; there is really no such thing as bad weather, only different kinds of good weather. ~John Ruskin

Monday, December 14, 2015

How to become a meteorologist

A meteorologist is someone who observes, report, and forecast weather conditions. There are six types of meteorologist(Weather forecaster, Climatologist, Researchers in Atmospheric Science, Consulting meteorologists, Lecturers, Weather broadcasters,). Being a meteorologist is not going to be easy. Meteorology requires pre/co-requisite knowledge in higher mathematics, advanced physics and chemistry, and a good computer profiency. You need to get a four year bachelor of science degree in meteorologist or climatologist. Research or management positions requires a Master of Science degree or a Ph.D. If you want to be a meteorologist or you are not sure, you canshadow or intern with the meteorologist. It is very important, because it allows you to have a hand to see how the meteorologist forecast the weather.The responsibility of collecting and reporting observational weather data is normally undertaken by Meteorological Technicians, who don't need to process an academic degree. Their qualification is normally obtained through completion of technical level courses duration from a few months to two years. If you want to be a TV weather person, journaism and mass media communication courses will be necessary. And a good knowledge of atmospheric physics and chemistry. You may also consider private weather consulting firms for employment, including as forensic meteorologist providing meteorological information and advice for legal cases.
Forensic is denoting the application of the scientific method or technique to the investigation of crime.

Sunday, December 13, 2015

The Weather Channel

Tamari L. Gray                                                                                                         December 13, 2015
Meteorology                                                                                                             Ms. Tuorto

The Weather Channel

My presentation was on the Weather Channel. While I was growing up, my parents would normally have the Weather Channel on in the morning. In order to get what type of temperatures and how roads where going to be for that day. Being know for its classy music and great weather reports the Weather Channel is one of the best weather stations on in the U.S.A. Although, the Weather Channel is known for other programming beside its general programming. With morning shows at 6am with Wake Up With Al or its brand new show Weather Underground. The Weather Channel can even be used on tablets, smart phones, and laptops. Even if your not a fan of weather stations or weather on TV, give the Weather Channel a chance, because of it's enjoyable music and up to date weather service it can make you and your family have a great day.  

Tuesday, December 8, 2015

How Weather Radars Work

Radar, is an acronym for, RAdio Detection And Ranging. Uniquely, Doppler radar can measure wind speed in precipitating regions. A Doppler radar receiver “hears” waves of a higher frequency if precipitation particles are moving toward the radar, and a lower frequency if particles are moving away. Doppler radars identify severe weather. For example, if particles switch from moving toward and then away from the Doppler radar over a small distance, the source may be a tornado. A modern Doppler radar system consists of a large radar dish housed inside an even larger hexagonal dome to protect it from the elements. The radar dish can rotate 360 degrees in the horizontal and approximately 20 degrees in the vertical. As the radar antenna turns, it emits extremely short pulses and waits for these pulses to return during the "listening period". Each pulse lasts about 0.00000157 seconds with a "listening period" of 0.00099843 second. The transmitted radio waves move through the atmosphere at the speed of light. Once it hits a raindrop or snowflake, the radio waves are scattered with some of the energy returning back to the radar. Radar observes all of this information during the “listening period”. This process is repeated up to 1,300 times per second. Observing the time it takes the radio waves to leave the antenna, hit the target, and return to the antenna, the radar can calculate the distance and direction of the target using the “Doppler effect”. The Dopller Effect is the change in frequency of a wave for an observer moving relative to its source. In addition, the returned energy the radar receives provides information on the target’s characteristics including size, intensity and even precipitation type.

Monday, December 7, 2015

How Weather balloons and radiosondes work

I did my presentation on weather balloons and radiosondes. At first I thought a weather a balloon was a magical balloon that goes high in the air and and some how records data. But it is almost as simple as that, a weather balloon carries a radiosonde high up into the atmosphere, up to the edge of space. At that height the radiosonde that had been carried by the balloon has recorded vertical temperature, humidity, and pressure data. This information is sent back to a receiving station to use for local weather. Over 1,800 radiosondes that are attached to weather balloons are launched everyday. Radiosondes are a primary and cheap source for weather data around the world.

Monday, November 23, 2015

How weather satellites work.

A Satellite is an artificial body placed in orbit around the earth or moon or another planet in order to collect information or for communication. Weather satellites observe many types of data sets such as: clouds and cloud systems,  City lights, fires, effects of pollution, auroras, sand and dust storms, snow cover, ice mapping, boundaries of ocean currents, energy flows, etc., and other types of environmental information. There are two main types of satellites: geostationary and polar orbiting. Polar orbiting satellites cover the whole earth by constantly circling the Earth in an almost north-south orbit, passing close to both poles. Geostationary, or GOES, satellites provide the kind of continuous monitoring necessary for intensive data analysis. They circle the Earth in a geosynchronous orbit, which means they orbit the equatorial plane of the Earth at a speed matching the Earth's rotation. This allows them to hover continuously over one position on the surface. Weather satellites carry instruments called radiometers (not cameras) that scan the Earth to form images. These instruments usually have some sort of small telescope or antenna, a scanning mechanism, and one or more detectors that detect either visible, infrared, or microwave radiation for the purpose of monitoring weather systems around the world. The measurements these instruments make are in the form of electrical voltages, which are digitized and then transmitted to receiving stations on the ground. The data are then relayed to various weather forecast centers around the world, and are made available over the internet in the form of images.

Monday, November 9, 2015

Quaternary Ice Age

The Quaternary Ice Age was a time period when the worlds temperature dropped and weather was terrible. We are still suffering from the Quaternary Ice Age and some of its effects because Antarctica is still completely frozen over. There were many different ice age epochs during the Quaternary and they all had a different effect. The ice ages led to extinction of animals, exposure of lands, death of vegetation and I'm pretty sure it caused many lives as well. All areas that this took place were effected greatly and animals such as the mammoth were affected tremendously by this ice age because of the destruction of the mammoth steppe. Citizens had to adjust to their lands being frozen over completely and ice shelves floating in their waters. Lakes and rivers freezing and also water not being allowed to exit because of the ice shelves blocking the river drainage ways. The Quaternary had such a huge affect on us that we are still feeling the effects of it today because the temperatures of our waters are colder than they were before the ice age happened. We are also still in it and edging towards leaving the ice age because Antarctica is still alive and as icy as can be.

Sunday, November 8, 2015

The European Heatwave of 2003

The European Heatwave of 2003 was a period of time where some parts of Europe suffered extreme temperatures for a period of weeks. Many people were effected by this but mostly the elderly. There was a total of about 70,000 deaths recorded. The area that suffered the most was France with a total death count of 14,802. Many homes in Europe didn't have air conditioning like we have now, which is why so many people were effected. The month of August in 2003 was recorded the hottest August in the history of Europe. The hottest temperature recorded in London was 37 degrees Celcius (100.2 degrees Fahrenheit), so imagine having the same type of temperature for a whole month, not many people would be able to handle it. Europe has now learned from this heatwave and found ways to deal with it if it every happens again.

Monday, November 2, 2015

Hurricane Andrew

Hurricane Andrew wiped out communities south of Miami killing 15 people when it struck in 1992. Dozens more died from injuries stemming from the storm and its aftermath. The storms wind speeds were estimated at more than 160 miles per hour; it broke the gauges that were used to collect data. Hurricane Andrew was a small and fast-moving hurricane, they compared to slow giants like the more recent storms like Katrina and Rita. In Florida almost 8 inches of rain came down in Broward and Miami Dade counties. The most rainfall from hurricane Andrew was in Hammond, LA, with almost 1 foot of rain. The Hurricane damaged or destroyed 9,500 traffic signs and signals, 3,300 miles of power lines 3,000 water mains, 59 health facilities, 31 public schools, 32,900 acres of farmland and 82,000 businesses.  Winds at landfall 165mph, gusts to 180mph, 10 miles wide eye, 16.9ft storm surge, 922mb. Highest unofficial gust 178mph, Briefly hit winds of 170mph just east of Eleuthero Island(Recon).

Sunday, November 1, 2015

May 31,2013 El Reno Tornado

On Friday May 31,2013 developed in El Reno,Oklahoma at an intersection of roads.It began to expand in size southwest of El Reno Municipal Air Park. Previously El Reno was hit by 2 tornadoes both EF-5.As the tornado passed by the airport, two small tornadoes formed and began to orbit the large the tornado.This tornado claimed the lives of 8 people and 151 injuries.Even though a radar measured wind speeds of 295 mph it was rated an EF-3 based on destruction.The smaller tornadoes measured wind speeds of 180 mph.It wasn't just El Reno that got affected, Oklahoma City experienced historical flash flooding which cause 13 people to lose their lives in the metro because they couldn't get out.This tornado destroyed houses,cars,and pretty much anything it came across.The cities experienced horrible loses and the tornado left people without homes and loved ones.This storm was the largest to ever hit in history and it will forever stay in peoples memories.

Sunday, October 25, 2015

Vilhelm Bjerknes

Image result for vilhelm bjerknes

Vilhelm Bjerknes was born on March 14, 1862. His father, Carl A. Bjerknes, was a mathematician and a researcher of hydrodynamics. Vilhelm was exposed to science at a young age by always helping his father with research. Soon, he continued his fathers research. After becoming a professor at the University of Stockholm, Vilhelm discovered the Polar Front Theory, or fronts. The Polar Front Theory was the discovery of cold and warm fronts, and where storms originated from. When two different fronts met, they would create waves, and take a cyclonic motion that usually turned counter clock wise. This would usually happen in middle latitudes, Earth's temperate zones between the tropics and the Arctic and Antarctic polar regions. Later, Vilhelm founded the Weather Service of Bergen where forecasting was born. Before this, weather readings were unreliable. Today, weather readings are more accurate and are shared with citizens worldwide. Vilhelm's methods and theorems are still used today. 

Friday, October 23, 2015

Johnstown Flood of 1889

The flood of Johnstown was caused by The South Fork Dam, collapsing and releasing 20 million tons of water. The Dam collapsed because it was not maintained by the owner, who was also the owner of the The South Fork Country Club. The Owner was suppose to maintain the dam by fixing and regulate the relief pipes, but that was not done. If the dam leaked the country club owner would just put dirt and straws to stop the leak. Then there was one of the largest rainstorms in history causing the dam to overflow. There were efforts to relieve water from the dam, but non were sufficient. The dam eventually collapse about 2 hours after the last effort to relieve it. 20 million tons of water was drained in about 20 minutes from the dam. It took about an hour for the water filled with debris to reach Johnstown. The downstream of water and debris took out entire villages on its way to Johnstown. The Downstream finally ended when the debris could not go past the stone bridge. The stone bridge saved the lives for many people caught in the downstream as a way to stop them from flowing to the unknown. It took about 3 months to clean up the debris, with dynamite and army support working day and night. The death toll was 2,209 (one of the largest number of American civilian deaths from a disaster), this was also one of the American Red Cross first relief efforts with raising 3.7 million dollars. There is now a national park and museum in Johnstown about the flood in 1889. Johnstown was later hit by floods but nothing as serious as the one in 1889.

Wednesday, October 21, 2015

Gabriel Fahrenheit

Daniel Gabriel Fahrenheit was the son of Daniel and Concordia Schumann Fahrenheit. He was born in Danzig, Germany in 1686. He is best known for creating the Fahenheit scale and first reliable thermometers. Since he never married he produced no offsprings. After his parents, oddly enough, died on the same day, he was sent to Amsterdam to work for and learn from a shopkeeper for four years. He then realized that he had an interest for making scientific instruments. He traveled greatly, spending a considerable amount of time in England where he became a member of the Royal Society. Based on the work the work of Olaus Roemer, he made his first two thermometers. His first thermometers were made from alcohol which he later changed to mercury. He made the discovery that the boiling point of water changes at different atmospheric pressures. He also discovered and studied supercooling a liquid. Reseach on boiling anfd freezing led him to believe that the boiling and freezing points of water were unreliable. He made the Fahrenheit scale form 0 to 212. He made 0 the temperature of a mixture of water, salt and ice. He made 32 as the freezing point of water, and 212 as the boiling point of water. He died in 1736 in The Hague, Amsterdam at the age of fifty.

Monday, October 19, 2015

The Ozone Hole

The Ozone Hole first appeared in the 1980s. It was causes because of the release of halocarbons into the atmosphere. The main two being chlorine  and bromine. This two slowly destroyed the ozone layer. It allowed more UV radiation to enter into Earth. It had terrible effects on life in Earth. However many countries from the UN are taking action and this crisis will soon get better.

Sunday, October 11, 2015

Hurricane Sandy

Hurricane Sandy at the height of the storm, over 7.5 million people were without power.The hurricane caused close to $62 billion in damage in the United States and at least $315 million in the Caribbean. The Caribbean almost received little to no media coverage and relief, because everyone was focusing on the effects of Sandy in America. The hurricane began as a tropical wave in the Caribbean and quickly turned into a tropical storm in 6 hours. It was upgraded to a hurricane when it reached 74 mph winds. After Sandy passed the Caribbean it was suspected to die out and not reach America. However the storm would resurrect from the dead like Frankenstein. When Arctic Air from Canada came down and would bring the storm straight inland to hit the Jersey Shore. The storm would end up. President Obama would end up saying to the American Citizens "to take this very seriously and follow the instructions of your state and local officials, because they are going to be providing you with the best advice in terms of how to deal with this storm over the coming days."  Governor Christie of New Jersey warned the residents of the Islands and anyone staying on the coast of New Jersey would be a dumb decision to stay. He was correct, the storm slammed into New Jersey  with winds of 80 mph. A full moon made high tides 20 percent higher than normal and amplified Sandy's storm surge. 115 mph when it hit NJ the lowest pressure was 940mb Hurricane Sandy was the deadliest and most destructive hurricane of the 2012 Atlantic hurricane season, and the second-costliest hurricane in United States history. When the Storm Hit New York Sandy's record storm surge slammed against the city's shore, causing billions of dollars in damage, putting the city into darkness, and killing 43 people. 89 mph wind hit New York City and the damage would end up causing over 50 million dollars of rebuilding from damage. Throughout the next week looting would come about in the Tri-State area because, stores and homes were destroyed by the storm. So broken doors and windows destroyed in the storm were easy to break in and steal items. After Hurricane Sandy New York and New Jersey came up with new laws, evacuation laws to get ready for the next storm.The total death toll reached 285, including at least 125 deaths in the United States.The hurricane caused close to $62 billion in damage in the United States and at least $315 million in the Caribbean. Sandy's tropical storm-force winds spanned 943 miles of the the U.S. coast.

Saturday, October 10, 2015

Luke Howard

Luke Howard was born on November 28, 1772 in London, England.

He was never trained to be a meteorologist and a scientist, but he was a weather enthusiast with an interest of meteorology. He was presenting his paper about clouds classification or modification. Cumulus, Cirrus, Stratus, Cirrocumulus, Cirrostratus, Cumulostratus, and Cumulocirrostratus (Nimbus). Howard influence the painters, poets, and philosophers of the romantic era. He died on March 21, 1864. He died at the age of ,91 in London, England.

Tuesday, October 6, 2015

Testuya Thedorew "Ted" Fujita

Testuya Theodore "Ted" Fujita, was born in Kitakyushu Japan on October 23, 1920. Before Fujita became a genius of how tornadoes worked and of its wind speed Fujita had to attend college. While attending the Kyushu institute of technology,  later on Fujita became an associate professor there until 1953. Another professor who saw his independent discovery on cold-air downdrafts, invited him to the University of Chicago. That's when Fujita started getting into tornadoes. Fujita was a brilliant man of his time who discovered down bursts and micro burst. Fujita was also known for his invention of the Fujita Scale. The Fujita Scale was a scale to compare tornado damage with the speed of the tornado. Fujita's first discovery down burst and micro burst was during World War II , when he was in Kokura (a town in Kitakyushu) which was where a Nuclear bomb was going to be dropped, but he
was spared because of good weather. It hit Nagasaki, and he went to go study the damage. Fujita died on November 19,1998 in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Fujita was a geek with power when it came to tornadoes and has changed the world for the better.

Friday, October 2, 2015

Blizzard of 1888 NYC

The Blizzard of 1888 NYC is remembered as the worst storm in NYC's history. New York was impacted with 50 inches of snow. It is known as the worst storm to ever hit New York because nobody was prepared for this blizzard. This storm is also known as,The Great White Hurricane, which lasted for a time period of 3 days in March. This storm also affected other locations in the Northeast too but New York was the place that had the worst of the blizzard. There was an estimate of 300-400 deaths excluding other Northeast states such as Maine, New Jersey, and New Hampshire. They used that horrible experience in order to improve communication and transportation in New York. They realized that they needed an underground train which is known as a subway, in order to travel during bad weather. Telephone wires were built underground so people could communicate with loved ones, who could be stranded in the middle of nowhere.

Wednesday, September 30, 2015

Tornado of Moore, Oklahoma

The Tornado of Moore, Oklahoma was the biggest disaster to hit the town of Moore in a very long time. That tornado also broke records for wind speed. With the tornado registering as an EF-5 tornado based on the wind speeds that it reached and damage that was caused the city of Moore, Oklahoma was basically left paralyzed in place. Thousands of peoples homes were destroyed from the storm. The tornado lasted an hour and a half ripping the town apart. There was $800 million dollars in damage done to the city. The city of Moore, Oklahoma is located in Tornado Valley and basically is the middle of it. The citizens were hit with more than one tornado after this one but none were to the magnitude of the Tornado of Moore, Oklahoma on May 3, 1999.

Edward Lorenz 

      Before Edward Lorenz discovered the chaos theory, Poincares had a vision about it with the three body problem which did not had any significant success. The theory a great way of thinking out weather patterns that seem to be totally out of order. Lorenz realized that small changes in the atmosphere can trigger an unsuspected result, this coincidentally led him to believe, " Predictably: does the flap of a butterfly's wing in Brazil set off a tornado in Texas?" His theory made scientists believe differently as to how weather cannot be predicted beyond three weeks with any amount of substantial accuracy. Lorenz insights started a new field of study not only in meteorology but also mathematics and science in the branches such as biological, social and physical.

He stuck the knife in the cake of the Cartesian law of movement when many had incited which is the third scientific revolution in the 20th century, following the likes of quantum physics relativity.

Friday, September 18, 2015


In 287 BC, Archimedes was born and raised by an astronomer who taught him a lot about mathematics, astronomy, and engineering. One of his biggest contributions to math was understanding the pi symbol. Due to the fcat that he was good at geometry, he was able to make a small planetarium. This incorporated geometry because he had to find out the precise angles and measurements in order to make a close representation of the planet's orbit. Archimedes' math skills also made it possible for the screw pump to be invented. This was a very important invention because without it, many cultures would have trouble with irrigation systems, which could later effect their farming. Archimedes also contributed to physics by creating the Archimedes Principle. This basically stated that "the buoyant is equal to the weight of displaced water."  Now what does Archimedes have to do with meteorology? Without his understanding of math, meteorologist would have trouble understanding the formation of convection clouds. Archimedes has left the legacy of being one of the greatest mathematicians, physicists, engineers, and astronomers. Lastly, he will be remembered for using the word "Eureka", which means "I have found it."

Thursday, September 17, 2015

The March 1993 Super Storm

The Super Storm of March 1993 would be known as the "Storm of the Century" because of the havoc and devastation it brought. By March 2, 1993 National Weather Service (NWS) Meteorologists had already predicted a significant storm using numerical weather prediction models and other meteorology tools. This was the first time a storm of such magnitude was predicted 5 days prior to its occurrence. The storm was a culmination of 3 different weather patterns, which were only fueled by rapid wind, temperature contrasts, and thunderstorms off the Texas Gulf Coast. On the midnight of March 13th, the storm reached land, bringing severe thunderstorms, turbulent winds, and tornadoes to the Florida Panhandle. The storm would soon bring its intensity from Florida to Georgia, Alabama, the Carolinas, and the Virginias. On the afternoon of March 13th the storm would reach the Northeast. At sea, the storm was powerful enough to sink the 200 foot Honduran freighter, the Fantastico. On land, it would bring heavy snowfall and flooding to many areas. The snowfall was so intense that Boone, North Carolina had 21 inches of snow. The aftermath of the storm is astounding. There was over 6 billion dollars worth of damage done to property and an estimated 10 million people were somehow affected by the storm. There were 318 fatalities, most of which were located in the southern part of the storm's course.

Monday, September 14, 2015

Hurricane Katrina Final

Hurricane Katrina was a natural disaster that occured from August 23, 2015 to August 31, 2015 . It was ranked the costliest natural disaster ever recored with a whopping 108 billion dollars of damage. The state most effected by the hurricane was Louisiana. The reason why there were effected the most because the city, New Orleans, is 6 feet below sea level . Their levee system, which was built in the 20th century, was aging and could not beat the powerful storm that was coming. It has been 1,600 people dead and most of the people that could not be saved was over the 74. The second state with the most deaths was Mississippi with 238. The state of Louisiana and the congress passed and act to help the state with their levee systems just in case something bad as Katrina happens again. The 10 year anniversary was roughly about 2 and a half weeks ago and even today some parts of NO are still effected by the hurricane. 

Sunday, September 13, 2015

Johannes Kepler: The Founder of Planetary Motion

               Before Johannes Kepler revealed the truth about the center of space, people actually thought that the earth was the center(people weren’t actually sure). Through his inquisitions, he was able to help discover what the actual center of the world was, the sun. Kepler helped pave a long road of scientific discoveries that helped advance our world. His Laws of Planetary Motion helped prove more than just where the center of the sun was. He helped show the world the distinction between astronomy and astrology(being the Co-Founder of Astrology). Finally, him predicting that the moon controls the tides.
Throughout history we have seen great astronomers and mathematicians, but none of them would have been done without Johannes Kepler and his Laws of Planetary Motion, his invention of the telescope, and advancement in Astronomy, which eventually led to other scientists like the likes of Isaac Newton and Galileo
Galilei, to advance in their research.